Автор Тема: Демидова И.В., Мясковская Т.В.-ЦЕЛИ И СТАНДАРТЫ ПРОЕКТНОЙ МОДЕЛИ ОБУЧЕНИЯ  (Прочитано 1369 раз)


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Демидова И.В., Мясковская Т.В.
РЭУ им.Г.В.Плеханова
E-mail: kravdem@yandex.ru
E-mail: myaskovskaya@rambler.ru


Аннотация. Современный преподаватель должен применять новые образовательные методы и средства не только для того, чтобы мотивировать интерес к предмету и сделать процесс обучения более динамичным. Становится очевидным тот факт, что рынок труда нацелен на поиск специалистов, обладающих самым широким кругом навыков и умений: особо ценятся критическое мышление, способность принимать профессиональные нестандартные решения, умение проводить презентации, работать самостоятельно и в команде. Метод проектного обучения (Project-based learning или PBL) помогает студентам находить решения сложной проблемы посредством проведения самостоятельных исследований  и презентации своих достижений. Целью написания данной статьи было изучение принципов, требований и стандартов  проектной модели обучения. Авторы статьи приводят пример  интердисциплинарного проекта, работа над которым требует от студентов компетенций в нескольких областях: логистики, управления персоналом, финансового менеджмента, английского языка и т.п.
Ключевые слова: проектная модель обучения (PBL),подход, принципы, этапы, решения.


Abstract. Currently teachers need to search for new tools and methods to make learning more enjoyable and dynamic for students not only because it makes them more motivated but also because the job market increasingly needs young people who have the ability to solve problems, think creatively, work in a team or individually and make presentations. Problem-based learning (PBL) is a constructivist pedagogical approach to learning in which students work together to find solutions to a complex problem, guided by a driving question and often making use of technology for research and the presentation of findings. The purpose of the paper is to examine the PBL principles, requirements and standards and offers a simplistic example of the PBL approach: students have to develop an entrepreneurial project of the chosen economic sector which will be interdisciplinary and involve knowledge of logistics, financial management, human resource management and operation managing.
Keywords: Problem-based learning (PBL), approach, principles, stages, solutions.

At its core, PBL is a teaching method enabling students to gain knowledge and skills through working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a complex question, problem, or challenge using project management techniques. They do this by engaging with designed “learning projects,” sequences of learning experiences that give students lots of opportunities to practice and improve all of their skills, while engaging in meaningful, real-world work that addresses compelling questions and problems.
PBL has proved to be an excellent approach to help students to build the learning and innovation, digital literacy, and career and life skills that are increasingly recognized as essential to work and live today. For example, research in recent years across several academic subjects has shown that PBL is a highly effective method to help students learn content, process, presentation, and problem-solving skills.
The benefits of PBL apply as much to the “4C’s”:
-   Critical thinking,
-   Collaborating,
-   Communicating
-   Creative problem solving.
In addition to this it helps improve technical mastery, life and career skills, and core subjects. Perhaps most importantly, project management is a universal business skill that is practiced in all industries and a skill set that is in high demand by employers. Students can gain vital skills which are closely related to applying the PBL approach:
-   they learn to participate and contribute in tasks that require sustained engagement and collaboration;
-   they may achieve higher levels of academic performance and personal development, regardless of their background or prior academic record;
-   they must become more successful by learning how to learn as well as what to learn.
This is a simplistic example to give you an idea of a brief PBL. The problem is stated as an ill-structured organizational problem or scenario. Such a presentation may be in the form of a video clip of a real manager at a company, a guest speaker a written statement:
“Russia, for which 50 % of its budget revenues are dependent on oil and gas returns. In the next year, the budget deficit should not exceed 3 percent. However, according to a review by Bank of America-Merrill Lynch, if oil prices were to fall to $35 a barrel, however, then in order for Russia to fulfil its 2016 budget with a maximum deficit of 3 percent, the dollar would have to cost about 94 rubles (in relation to the ruble-dollar exchange rate in mid-December, this means the ruble would drop by another 34 %). This is not to say that times are good for Russian business. High inflation, the high cost of capital and the falling real income of the population has curbed growth and investment for most companies. But analysts speculate that this could be healthy, as it forces companies to become more efficient. Russian entrepreneurs have the potential to solve many economic problems” [ Kuchma, 2015, p. 2].

Which sectors do you think there should be more entrepreneurs solving problems in the MOST? You can vote for only one sector. Then develop a project on improving this sector work in the nearest future.
Food processing   
Mining/Resource extraction   
Every PBL team will choose a sector they are going to work at and appoint leader and sometimes a secretary. Every PBL team will be guided in the use of a reiterative problem-solving process. Some PBL investigations may culminate in a student-created project or product, exhibitions, or other artifacts that address the driving questions. In some cases, the PBL investigation will culminate in an oral performance with managers from the business community in attendance.
While working at a chosen sector a team is expected to:
1.   Develop their diagnostic reasoning and analytical problem-solving skills.
2.   Determine what knowledge they need to acquire to understand the problem, and others like it.
3.   Discover the best resources for acquiring that information.
4.   Carry out their own personalized study using a wide range of resources.
5.   Apply the information you have learned back to the problem.
6.   Integrate this newly acquired knowledge with their existing understanding.
It is almost guaranteed that the endeavor will be interdisciplinary. The teacher's role is to serve as coach, guiding students to use a variety of resources, employ a strategy that is fun and motivating, and uncover content with depth and breadth.
There are commonly 3 main stages in working through a PBL project:
1.   Defining the problem. At this stage students need to grasp the nature and scope of a problem. They have to develop a hypothesis for the question. A hypothesis is an explanation for observed data or information that still has to be tested. The group starts with gathering information and lists it under a heading entitled “What do we already know?” The group discusses the current situation surrounding the problem as it has been presented. This analysis requires discussion and agreement on the working definitions of the problems, and sorting out which issues and aspects of the situation are worthy of further investigation. This initial analysis should yield a problem statement that serves as a starting point for the investigation, and it may be revised as assumptions are questioned and new information comes to light.
2.   Dealing with relevant information. The group engages with the problem by also identifying under a second heading, "What do we need to know to solve this problem?" Here you will list questions or learning issues that must be answered to address missing knowledge, or to shed light on the problem. It is in this phase that your group will be analyzing the problem into components, discussing implications, entertaining possible explanations or solutions, and developing working hypotheses. This activity is like a "brainstorming" phase with evaluation suspended while explanations or solutions are written on a flipchart or chalkboard. Your group will need to formulate learning goals, outlining what further information is needed, and how this information can best be obtained.
Students need to:
- access the information via internet searches, online libraries or traditional text books;
- evaluate and consider the following about the information that they have found: credibility, accuracy, its being up to date and relevant to the project, sources of the information;
- select and utilize the material which is selected.
 3. Developing a Solution. Students need to construct and present a solution. This will require team – building and decision making skills, followed by developing detail within the decision and then communicating the solution (putting together a paper, report, multimedia presentation, etc.). The group makes a "What should we do?" list which formulates keeps track of such issues as what resources to consult, people to interview, articles to read, and what specific actions team members need to perform. It is in this phase that the group identifies and allocates learning tasks, develops study plans to discover needed information. Students gather information from the classroom, resource readings, texts, library sources, videos, and from external experts on the subject. As new information is acquired, the group needs to meet to analyze and evaluate it for its reliability and usefulness in applying it to the problem. The group members spend a great deal of time discussing the problem, generating hypotheses, identifying relevant facts, searching for information, and defining their own learning issues. Unlike traditional and standard classes, learning objectives are not stated up front. Members of the group generate learning issues or objectives based on the analysis of the problem. Students define and construct potential solutions. Tutors model, guide and coach to support group members through the learning and assessment process. At this stage the majority of class time will be devoted to working in self-directed, PBL small group tutorials. A portion of class time will be allocated to "Resource Sessions," which may include simulations, case studies, and brief discussions to further explore concepts and issues which arise out of the PBL projects.
Writing PBL documentation for incorporation. The students and tutors involved will use clear and established documentation as a reference point, to control the nature and scope of the project and ensure predetermined learning outcomes.
Components of the Documentation:
1.   Problem Definition: a real world scenario needs to be presented to the students. This may be done in any number of ways. One way would be by constructing a Problem Statement, which contains the following: the problem itself, individual student`s role in the project; tasks, etc. The problem statement may be as little as half a page of writing and may involve illustrations or photographs as well.
2.   Aims or Learning Outcomes. This may or may not be given to the student; but well defined aims or outcomes should be established which the Project aims to achieve. (a list of things which the student will be able to do upon completion of the case at hand)
3.   Team Structure (names of students involved in the project, and what roles will each team member serve and the mode of interaction (how team members will communicate with each other, determine delineation of tasks, etc.).
4.   Guidelines. They may be given for both dealing with Information and for solution development. At this stage tutors have to qualify and quantify the work expected from a student. Information might be accessed from print or electronic media and from people (via interviewing, emailing, phoning, etc.) Students must manage their effort according to time and resources available, decide what is current or out of date, what information is relevant. There may be an indication of how research or other responsibilities are to be split or delegated amongst a team. Theories need to be constructed and tested against the information, and where it becomes obvious that there are gaps in information; those gaps must be filled. Different options need to be considered and best options selected. Details of solution implementation need to be developed, and refined; then a presentation prepared.
5.   Resources (references, web links or anything else relevant to the case)
Template for PBL projects. There is a comprehensive, research-based model for PBL, a “gold standard” to help teachers and organizations to measure, calibrate, and improve their practice. This term is used in many industries and fields to indicate the highest quality process or product. Our conception of Gold Standard PBL has three parts:
 1) Student Learning Goals
2) Essential Project Design Elements
3) Project Based Teaching Practices
We recommend all projects include a focus on these success skills:
-   critical thinking or problem solving,
-    collaboration,
-    self - management.
Projects may also help build other skills, habits of mind and work, and personal qualities (such as diligence, perseverance or creativity, ability to think critically, solve problems, work with others and manage oneself and one’s own work) which are crucial stepping stones to future success.
When transitioning to PBL, one of the biggest hurdles for many teachers is the need to give up some degree of control over the classroom, and trust in their students. But even though they are more often the “guide on the side” than the “sage on the stage,” this most certainly does not mean that teachers don’t “teach” in a PBL classroom.
Basic Principles of the PBL approach. Many traditional practices remain, but are reframed in the context of a project. There are a few basic principles for transition to PBL learning strategies – the teacher should consider the following things:
- Thorough planning. Teachers create or adapt a project for their context and students, and plan its implementation from launch to culmination while allowing for some degree of student voice and choice.
- Creating clear standards. Teachers use standards to plan the project and make sure it addresses key knowledge and understanding from subject areas to be included.
- Building the culture. Teachers explicitly and implicitly promote student independence and growth, open-ended inquiry, team spirit, and attention to quality.
- Managing Activities. Teachers work with students to organize tasks and schedules, set checkpoints and deadlines, find and use resources, create products and make them public.
- Scaffolding Student Learning. Teachers employ a variety of lessons, tools, and instructional strategies to support all students in reaching project goals. We give students the end result and goal or the objective of the project, but within that they can shape the topic they’re researching, so they’re ultimately engaged because it’s a personal choice that they made.
- Assessing Student Learning. Teachers use formative and summative assessments of knowledge, understanding, and success skills, and include self and peer assessment of team and individual work.
- Coaching. Teachers engage in learning and creating alongside students, and identify when they need skill-building, redirection, encouragement, and celebration.
- Prioritizing Learning Goals. Student learning of academic content and skill development are at the center of any well-designed project. Like the lens of a camera, our diagram puts the focus of PBL on preparing students for successful school and life experiences.
- Enabling students to apply the results of their projects to the real life situations. PBL teaches students the important content standards, concepts, and in-depth understandings that are fundamental to school subject areas and academic disciplines. In good projects, students learn how to apply knowledge to the real world, and use it to solve problems, answer complex questions, and create high-quality products. Project-Based-Learning taps into students' interests by allowing them to create projects that result in meaningful learning experiences. The method requires teachers to identify projects that challenge students to work individually or in groups to create plans, solve problems they encounter, test their ideas, present their projects to peers. Project-Based-Learning seems to be one of the most effective methods for teaching and it is believed that students can develop kinds of skills especially the social skills by encouraging collaborative work amongst students.
-Teaching critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Content knowledge and conceptual understanding, by themselves, are not enough in today’s world. In universities, in the modern workplace, as citizens and in their lives generally, people need to be able to think critically and solve problems, work well with others, and manage themselves effectively. We call these kinds of competencies “success skills.” They are also known as “21st Century Skills” or “Career Readiness Skills.” It is important to note that success skills can only be taught through the acquisition of content knowledge and understanding. For example, students don’t learn critical thinking skills in the abstract, isolated from subject matter; they gain them by thinking critically about math, science, history, English, career/tech subjects, and so on. As for observing and directing the process - “teachers generally serve as facilitators, providing scaffolding, guidance and strategic instruction as the process unfolds” [Демидова, Мясковская, 2015, c. 2296].
Selected apps for PBL learning. Project-based learning lets students locate a problem and then unleash their creativity in search of a solution. By nature, these projects are collaborative and multidisciplinary. Are there any tools to use to help create PBL projects?
Here, we have gathered a few apps which will enable students to:
- Find a challenge: Use apps that connect students to innovative resources and news sources, such as the magazine-like aggregator Zite, readers Feedly, the TED app., NPR.
-Brainstorm: Try apps such as MindNode, Stickyboard, and Ideasketch to get creative juices flowing;
- Collaborate: Consider these fresh apps for getting students to work together through journaling (iDO Notepad), and making checklists (Wunderlist);
- Organizing thoughts with the help of mindmaps - iBrainstorm, Popplet Research;
- To manage projects you may try such apps as gTasks/GoTasks and Weave;
- To turn spreadsheet and other data into visuals and charts and to do data analysis you may consider Roambi Analytics;
-To present findings you may trysuch apps as Prezi, iMovie, or Haiku Deck;
- To share photos taken during the process use Nostalgio or Frametastic;
-To create books use Scribble Press;
- To record thoughts via audio consider VoiceThread or Audioboom.
Project-Based Learning uses project management methods to help students build skills and knowledge in a variety of subjects through exploration and practice. It is somewhat different from formal project management training, which is designed to train individuals in the specific professional skills of a project manager. Because stakeholders including the employer community and educators at all levels will need to understand PBL in order to move toward implementing it in the classroom, this document gives a brief overview of PBL itself and how it should draw on the project management skills that professionals use daily. It’s nice that Project Based Learning is becoming popular, but popularity can bring problems. we are concerned that the recent upsurge of interest in PBL will lead to wide variation in the quality of project design and classroom implementation.
If done well, PBL yields great results. But if PBL is not done well, two problems are likely to arise:
-   we will see a lot of assignments and activities that are labeled as “projects” but which are not rigorous PBL, and student learning will suffer.
-   we will see projects backfire on underprepared teachers and result in wasted time, frustration, and failure to understand the possibilities of PBL. Then PBL runs the risk of becoming another one of yesterday’s educational fads – vaguely remembered and rarely practiced.

1.   Демидова И.В., Мясковская Т.В. Project-based learning strategies // Ломоносовские чтения на Алтае: фундаментальные проблемы науки и образования: Сборник научных статей международной конференции. Барнаул: АГУ, 2015. С. 2296-2298.
2.   Kuchma A. What awaits Russia’s economy in 2016 – collapse or recovery? // Russia beyond the headlines. 18.12.2015 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://rbth.com/business/2015/12/18/what-awaits-russias-economy-in-2016-collapse-or-recovery_552581(дата обращения 18.01.2016)

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На самом деле, ничего удивительного в том, что мы процитировали свою статью, написанную, ранее, нет. Мы занимаемся темой "Проектное обучение" уже три года, и эта статья является продолжением первой. Отвечать сразу возможность есть не всегда, к сожалению, т.к. мы проводим занятия. есть ещё вопросы, уважаемая Прокофьева О.? Спрашивайте, будем рады обсудить.
Демидова Ирина Викторовна, ст. преподаватель кафедры ин. языков № 2, РЭУ им. Г.В. Плеханова


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Уважаемые авторы!
А используете ли вы проектную модель в обучении студентов? Если да, то какие последние проекты вы создавали?
Семина Вера Викторовна, к.п.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков №2, РЭУ имени Г.В. Плеханова

irina demidova

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 В данный момент студенты работают над проектом "Технология создания рекламного продукта ".
Демидова Ирина Викторовна, ст. преподаватель кафедры ин. языков № 2, РЭУ им. Г.В. Плеханова